Thursday, April 19, 2012

UNICEF Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey on Early Nurturing of Children Job Vacancy in Kigali, Rwanda

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey on Early Nurturing of Children
Generating Baselines on Existing Attitudes and Good Practices in Parenting, Nurturing and Child Stimulation

Terms of Reference

I. Background
In January 2012, the Government of Rwanda launched the “Joint Action Plan for the Elimination of Malnutrition. This strategic document plots a course towards addressing the root causes of malnutrition and places a strong emphasis on behaviour change, particularly vis a vis feeding practices at the family level.
A healthy pregnancy and the early years of a child’s life are critical to addressing the phenomenon of malnutrition. The multi-sectoral approach articulated in the Joint Action Plan as well as the national policy on Early Childhood Development recognize the importance of the role of the family to give young children the best possible start in life through promoting good parenting practices, nurturing, hygiene, nutrition, stimulation, and promoting the right of every child to grow up to develop to his or her full potential.

As part of its support to communication initiatives outlined in the Joint Action Plan, in particular the campaign “One Thousand Days in the Land of a Thousand Hills”, UNICEF is supporting the Government of Rwanda to conduct a Knowledge, Attitudes and Knowledge (KAP) survey among parents of children under the age of 6 years, to generate and consolidate information on existing attitudes and good practices in parenting and nurturing and child stimulation. While important empirical data exist (RDHS 2010, EICV 4), and there are some indications of lack of awareness of how to provide good nutrition to children (Kabeho Mwana, 2008 and Phase I study In Home Fortification with Micronutrient Powder, 2011) the results of the KAP survey will provide crucial additional information on attitudes towards nutrition and upbringing of children. Moreover, the KAP will have a multiplier effect by helping to establish baselines for continuous monitoring of broader trends around the early years of a child’s life. .

II. Purpose, objectives and scope
The main purpose of this KAP survey on early nurturing of children is to generate and document evidence on existing attitudes and practices towards young children in order to inform:

1. The nationwide campaign, “A Thousand Days in the Land of a Thousand Hills” aimed at raising awareness nation-wide on family and child feeding practices in the first one thousand days of a child’s life which are critical to preventing stunting. The “Thousand Days” campaign will be reaching down to the household/family level, and therefore it is essential to have baseline information on attitudes of families towards child rearing.

2. “Every Child Needs a Family” a future campaign to create awareness on the importance of all children growing up in families in the effort to provide alternative family care for all children currently residing in orphanages. The survey will gather data about the family, education of parents and care givers, antenatal care during pregnancy, attitudes towards breast feeding and nutrition, child care and protection against injury, violence and abuse, health care and hygiene, children with disabilities, pre-school education and readiness for school, methods used to stimulate young children, story-telling, foster care and adoption and support to poor families, etc. The approach will be based on established KAP surveys and methodologies, adapted to the Rwandan context. The findings and recommendations will help to define appropriate family- and community-level approaches and investments for optimum wellbeing in the early years of a child’s life in support of Rwanda’s long-term vision for children and national development. The main users of the report will be Government policy makers, district and community leaders, UN agencies and other stakeholders involved in the area of child rights promotion. The survey will also generate information that may be used in the preparation of the EDPRS-2,and other key strategic planning documents..

Objectives:
The KAP survey on early nurturing of children will create better understanding of existing attitudes and practices on breast feeding and nutrition, child care and protection, health care and hygiene, children with disabilities, pre-school education, stimulation of young children, foster care and adoption and support to poor families, etc. In particular, the survey will:
1. Generate and document existing knowledge, attitudes and practices on ECD and the family (parenting, nurturing, nutrition, health care and hygiene, deinstitutionalization, protection, and stimulation of children) in Rwanda
2. Describe vulnerabilities and gaps in knowledge, attitudes and practices among different socio-economic groupings and geographic areas of Rwanda.
3. Generate baseline data on existing attitudes and practices in early childhood development and as part of a framework for monitoring progress.
4. Provide essential data for formulation of key messages and required areas of focus for the “Thousand Days” campaign as well as the “Every Child Needs a Family” campaign.

Scope:
This assignment aims to generate and document information on attitudes and practices on early nurturing of children in Rwanda through conducting a survey on a sample of households, and using available data and reports. The survey will be conducted with an equity lens to identify different approaches in different regions and among different socio-economic groups. Additional data may be gathered, especially from children’s centres, and agencies working in the area of child rights protection/promotion. The identified consultant(s) will work with a lead researcher in the Ministry of Health to develop a conceptual framework, review relevant literature, design appropriate research tools, undertake data analysis on identified issues and prepare draft and final reports for discussion with stakeholders. Relevant hypotheses on ECD and the family and identified/observed attitudes and practices will be developed and tested with the data. A capacity analysis of families and communities to implement recommended measures to promote ECD will be conducted. The consultant(s) will be expected to familiarize him/herself with the objectives of the survey through consultations with Government partners, UNICEF staff and other stakeholders.

III. Methodology and expected results
The knowledge, attitudes and practices survey of the ECD and the Family in Rwanda will be implemented on a sample of at least 3,000 households drawn from across the country. The consultant will work with the lead researcher at the Ministry of Health to design and implement a comprehensive questionnaire for the survey to capture the key issues on ECD and the family, based on existing KAP surveys. Available national reports and policy documents including the ECD Policy and Strategic Plan, education Sector Strategic Plan, preliminary DHS 2010 report, the CRC 2010 report, Integrated Child Rights Policy, the Sector Working Groups Review Reports, etc. will be reviewed. International publication on ECD including, but not limited to World Bank reports, country reports from the region and other areas, etc. may also be reviewed. A participatory approach including working with a lead researcher from the Ministry of Health and involving key central government stakeholders, district and community leaders, development partners, civil society organizations, faith-based organisations, families and communities will participate is recommended. In all cases, and in as much as possible, identified knowledge, attitudes and practices will be disaggregated by age group (pre-birth, 0-2 years and 3-6 years), sex, disability, location (rural/urban and province) and socio-economic groupings. Within the age groups, the survey will address, but will not be limited to the issues indicated in table 1: Table 1: ECD and the Family – Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices by child age group Age group Possible areas of inquiry Pre-birth Knowledge and attitudes on: ante-natal care, birth in health facility, nutrition, lessons on child birth, breastfeeding immediately after birth, health care and hygiene… Age 0-2 years Knowledge, attitudes practices on: vaccination, birth registration, breastfeeding and nutrition, neonatal and infant morbidity, hygiene, ECD/parental education, early stimulation, disciplining children, story-telling/talking to children, fostering, adoption, support to poor families with children, … Age 3-6 years Knowledge, attitudes practices on: nutrition, morbidity, health care, hygiene and sanitation, mosquito net utilization, birth registration, ECD/parental education, early stimulation, protection against injury/violence/abuse, community interventions, community ECD centres, story-telling, disciplining children, adoption and support to poor families … Cross-cutting issues Knowledge, attitudes practices on: vulnerable children – orphans, children with disabilities; early identification of disabilities, … Contextual aspects Poverty, education levels of parents/care givers, urban/ rural localization, access to safe water and adequate sanitation, quality/quantity of community facilities (basic health centres and pre-school availability; access to economic opportunities).

IV. Expected results:
The survey will generate a comprehensive report on the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices in parenting, nurturing, nutrition, health care and hygiene, protection, and stimulation of children, etc. in Rwanda.. Using the equity approach, the survey will highlight some of the vulnerabilities and gaps in knowledge, attitudes and practices among different socio-economic groupings and geographic areas of Rwanda. The specific results include:
1. Elaboration of existing knowledge, attitudes and practices in parenting, nurturing, nutrition, health care and hygiene, protection, and stimulation of children in Rwanda;
2. A description of vulnerabilities and gaps in knowledge, attitudes and practices among different socio-economic groupings and geographic areas of Rwanda;
3. Baselines on existing attitudes and practices on early childhood development and a framework for monitoring progress, and data for the formulation of key messages and required areas of focus for the national campaigns on: “Thousand Days” and “Every Child Needs a Family.”

V. Deliverables
The consultants will develop a conceptual framework including a detailed methodology, research instruments, work plan and analytical plan. The consultant will prepare and present draft reports and final reports to be discussed by stakeholders. Summary reports and reference materials will also be prepared. The specific deliverables include:
1. Conceptual framework with the consultant’s interpretation of the ToR, detailed methodology, research instruments and work plan.
2. Analytical plan including data analysis and a description of the possibilities and challenges in terms of data analysis and reporting.
3. A draft report and power point presentation highlighting the preliminary results for discussion with stakeholders including full analysis of all the critical areas agreed upon at the start of the consultancy.
4. A revised report highlighting the results and recommendations and incorporating earlier comments of stakeholders for further discussion.
5. A final report detailing the results and recommendations.
6. Summary report and annex with reference materials.

VI. Duration, Administration and Reporting
The assignment will be for 2 months with effect from the time of signing of the contract. The consultants will be responsible for setting up meetings with the appropriate government counterparts, district and community leaders, families, children’s centres and stakeholders working in the area of child rights promotion. The draft and final reports will be shared with and validated by key stakeholders including the Ministries of Health, Gender and Family Promotion, and that of Education, the National Commission for Children, National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda, UN agencies and NGOs working in the area of child rights protection.

UNICEF will cover the consultant’s fees (at a rate to be agreed), costs of travel, per diem and all logistics that may be incurred by the consultant in the process of undertaking this assignment. The contract will be signed between the consultant and UNICEF on the ToRs. On the UNICEF side, the consultant will report to the Social Policy Manager for issues relating to the management of the contract. The consultant will be governed by the UN rules and regulations.

VII. Payment arrangements
The consultant will be paid in four installments are follows:
1. 25% of the contract amount after signing contract and delivery of an acceptable conceptual framework with the consultant’s interpretation of the ToR, detailed methodology and work plan.
2. 25% upon delivery of an acceptable draft report highlighting the preliminary results.
3. 25% upon delivery of an acceptable revised report highlighting the results and recommendations and incorporating earlier comments.
4. 25% upon delivery of an acceptable final report detailing the results and recommendations; summary report and reference materials.

VIII. Qualifications
• A consulting firm/research institution, with a minimum of 7 years of demonstrable experience in qualitative research, data analysis and reporting with a focus on child development and education, and experience of undertaking surveys in Rwanda;
• Demonstrable experience in the conduct of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices surveys, developing qualitative research tools and implementing such research and experience in the conduct of Household Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, especially in developing countries;
• Ability to use key data analysis software e.g. STATA, SPSS, CSPro, SAS, etc.
• Excellent communication skills; ability to explain complex concepts in a simple manner; and
• Excellent command of English, both spoken and written. Knowledge of French and/or Kinyarwanda will be an advantage.

How to apply:
Please send your CV, P11 and copy of degrees to rwajobs@unicef.org and copy to bkampirwa@unicef.org .
Closing date: 04 May 2012

Love to hear what you think!

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