Saturday, October 15, 2016

Plan Rwanda International,A Consultant For A Study On Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices Around Gender And Learning In Rwanda.



Terms Of Reference To Hire A Consultant For A Study On Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices Around Gender And Learning In Rwanda.
  1. Summary
Plan International Rwanda is seeking to hire an experienced consultant to conduct a study on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices around Gender and Learning in Rwanda.This following the call from UNICEF for submissio
n of proposals by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) to support achievement of results for children outlined in the 2013-2018 Country Programme.
Across the country, the study will cover 10 districts of Rwanda (2 districts per Province plus 2 districts in Kigali City) and will focus on upper primary school aged girls and boys, particularly girls (P4-P6); Parents (Mothers, fathers/Guardians) of those children; Education officials and school staff, including DEOs, SEOs, Head Teachers and P4-P6 teachers and CSOs dealing with education and gender. The consultancy work is expected to last 4 months from the time of signing the contract with initial findings being expected from the study by the end of December 2016.
  1. Background and rationale
Promoting gender equality and girls’ education is a national priority for Rwanda. Over the past two decades enormous strides have been made to improve girls’ access and progression in school. Now, Rwanda boasts one of the highest overall primary school enrolment rates in Africa and has reached gender parity in school enrolment in all levels of education (Ministry of Education Yearbook, 2015). But one would take interest to find out why the dropout rates have been increasing over the past years with a significant reduction in 2015. There are significant gender issues affecting completion, drop out, performance, retention and learning in school for both girls and boys. For example, boys are more likely to repeat and dropout however girls are less likely to pass and excel on the national exam and less likely to pursue high wage earning academic tracks and careers.In line with the ESSP and the Girls Education Policy, it is important to find out on the awareness among boys and girls, education staff, parents and community leaders on the impact of gender on education but also consider the demand-side barriers to either girls or boys education.
Plan International Rwanda is presently implementing Boys4Change Model to mobilize men and boys to be champions of gender equality and have realized that their awareness and actions plan formulations supported by teachers and other adults is key to the success of such an intervention. It is important that different actors at different levels understand their role in mainstreaming gender and promote gender equality through different initiatives to achieve lasting learning outcomes. Through the Gender responsive school model, Plan International promote gender responsive teaching material and support meaningful child participation in school governance.
Advocacy and Campaigns: Plan International Rwanda is recognized as a key national partner in advocating for policies and practices that promote gender equality and inclusion.  This is done through the development of nationally recognized evidence-based programming that promotes gender equality and inclusion. Plan International Rwanda recognizes that one cannot talk about gender equality without addressing inclusion. Therefore, Plan International Rwanda is moving towards an intersectional approach by continuing to focus on gender equality but also looking at gender in relation to other vulnerable groups and mainstreaming it across everything we do especially through our Because I am a Girl (phase 2) which is a global movement to transform power relations; so that girls everywhere LEARN, LEAD, DECIDE and THRIVE. In many of our advocacy actions the evidence is built up and derived from children and youth and they play an active part in the advocacy.
It is from this short background that this study will be carried out in order to highlight the voices, perceptions and experiences that reflect the diverse realities of girls and boys in order to inform and contribute to the governments and SDG target 5. The study will focus on understanding the knowledge, attitudes and practices around gender and learning in Rwanda, and the lived realities, perceptions & social norms of boys and girl in relation to:
  1. Supply side barriers in schools, including the attitudes and expectations of teachers
  2. Demand side barriers to learning, including care & domestic work in the home ( masculinity and gender equality) and educational value  (teachers skills on gender sensitive teaching, Influence on school governance)
  3. Feelings of self-efficacy, e.g. control and decisions over my own body and life decisions (SRH, early pregnancy etc) and perceptions of social relations and safety in schools
The findings would inform policy implementation and formulation of the communication strategies for the Ministry of Education and other actors.
  1. Study Objectives and questions
    1. Study objectives
The proposed KAP study has two main objectives:
  • To inform the development of the national communications strategy on girls’ education and to act as a baseline to monitor progress of Government of Rwanda and UNICEF Rwanda programmes that target behaviours change around gender and learning.
  • To establish reliable qualitative data that can be used to understand knowledge, attitude, behaviours and practices and to inform national programme development and implementation.
Specifically, the study intends to:
  • Establish the current existing knowledge, attitudes and practices on gender and learning
  • Identify gender barriers experienced by boys and girls to achieving gender equality within education
  • Critically analyze the available syllabus and materials prepared by the major players, e.g. Government, INGOs, UN agencies, and local and international NGOs through a gender lens and provide specific and concrete suggestions for improvements.
  • Analyze Rwanda education policy from a gender perspective and provide short and long-term recommendations for eliminating or significantly reducing gender inequality in education
Some study questions
  • How do children, their parents or care givers and other duty bearers understand gender in Rwanda context?
  • How far does the pedagogy/teaching methodology used in primary school facilitategender transformative education?
  • Do teacher trainings draw teachers’ attention to the ways in which they might behave differently to boys and girls, to be able to address their needs in gender lenses?
  • What is the situation on gender inclusion in education in Rwanda?
  • Do quality education initiatives in primary school include efforts to make education positive for both boys and girls?
  • Any recommendations on how to better promote gender equality in schools.
  • Do policies acknowledge the need for particular attention to girls in education?Does education policy address disadvantaged girls or their groups?
  • How does the leadership of school affect the retention/drop out and the general participation of boys and girls?
  • Which communities and social groups have least opportunities for formal and informal learning and what is the status of girls within these groups.
  • What can be the models, good practices and promising entry points which could help Plan International Rwanda and its partners develop a gender aware and transformative education model?
The study will be designed, implemented and analyzed in partnership with the youths also as way to build their capacity in conducting research but also enhance the quality and richness of the study findings. The findings and recommendations will help to inform the national Communication strategy around Gender and Education, define appropriate communications messages, policy approaches and programmatic interventions to promote girls’ education and youth empowerment, which will support Rwanda’s long-term vision for children, girls and national development.
Study methods and stakeholders
4.1 Study methodologies and location
The KAP study has to be conducted country wide. However, due to time constraint, the consultant will not cover all 416 administrative sectors nor all the 30 Districts. For qualitative purpose, we will take into account sampling administrative entities (districts, sectors, cells and villages) that represent the social, cultural, geographical, etc. variation in the targeted areas as a whole. The Consultant (team leader) and Plan International Rwanda (in consultation with UNICEF) will decide upon which communities can be visited both in terms of capturing variations but also for logistics aspect.
The study team will interview 200 adults and 200 students of upper primary school. In addition, in-depth interviews will be conducted on 30 representatives from local authorities, schools, and CSOs. A list of all 20 villages in 10 districts will serve as a primary sampling unit. The lead consultant will agree with the team the approach to be used (aspects to consider) to reach the target groups within villages. Children will be interviewed at their schools. Structured questionnaires will be employed to collect socio-demographic characteristics and insights into the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of respondents towards gender and learning.
    SamplingØ
This research will use a purposive sampling approach so as to target and capture the experiences of a diverse set of children and youths (boys and girls); parents/guardians and other relevant players. Across the country, the study will cover 10 districts of Rwanda (2 districts per Province plus 2 in Kigali City) and will focus on:
  • Upper primary school girls and boys, particularly girls;
  • Parents (Mothers, fathers/Guardians) of those children;
  • Education officials and school staff, including DEOs, SEOs, Head Teachers and P4-P6 teachers.
  • CSOs dealing with education
Data Collection.
The study will focus on qualitative methods of data collection. The Consultant will provide detailed methodological guidance including data collection tools. Young people will actively participate in the design, implementation and analysis of the research. The following methods of data collection will be used:
  • Desk review of existing quantitative and qualitative data on gender and learning in Rwanda.
  • Youth Reference Group – A youth reference group composed of youths from university and youths from secondary schools in gender promoting clubs like Boys4Change representing selected districts will be brought together to advise on the research process, findings and next steps. The details of the youth reference group will be agreed with MINEDUC and UNICEF.
  • Focus Group Discussions – The FGDs should be age and gender disaggregated. The FGD and KII guidelines will be written by the Consultant in English and can be approved by Plan International. The number of FGDs for each of the targeted groups namely girls, boys, mothers, fathers, teachers, head teachers, community leaders… will be agreed upon with the consultant. This will help two female groups to freely/openly express their views without fear or favor. The FGD will be youth led, with young people being engaged from the design, data collection and analysis of the qualitative data. The FGDs will be recorded, summarized by a note taker in real time and transcribed in Kinyarwanda after the focus group. After each FGD, the youth enumerators will take a tablet-based survey to report on the key themes and points in the focus group discussion.
  • Key Informant Interviews: Purposive sampling will be used to get the right people such as representative of CSOs, local government authorities, village heads, and Ministry of Education Leaders, and school authorities who will be interviewed and provide relevant information or data in line with gender and learning in Rwanda context. Open ended questionnaires will be developed and administered to youths, boys and girls who are a key representative of the socio-cultural category of targeted beneficiaries.
  • Reflection notes; the research team members will develop some reflective notes basing it on observations made.
4.2 Study participants
The Consultant will propose a team that seems most fit to undertake the study. The Team should include a Team Leader who bears the overall responsibility, the sector experts (gender and education) and independent local expert. A Plan International staff from the Sweden Office will also provide remote support and quality assurance. In order to ensure gender equity and sustainability, an equal number of male and female youth will be selected as research enumerators from local universities’ social sciences departments. They will be selected based on previous experience if possible in a research project in university, in conducting interviews for example; they should have a strong interest in gender issues and be available to carry out research during this time. Per district, we will work with 5 researcher assistants with this profile after having participated in a training session and also received training on Plan’s protection policy and signed Plan’s protection policy. The research advisor at Plan headquarters will support in the selection, adaptation and guidance on relevant tools.
The study will build on established KAP survey approaches and methodologies, however it will include an innovative component of youth participation. Adolescents and young people will be engaged in the research from the beginning and will play a central role in designing, implementing and analyzing the questions and discussion format. To design this component of the research, well established approaches to youth participation will be used.  The methodology should target at least one community in each sector of the country. The selected Consultant will work with the Ministry of Education, UNICEF Rwanda, and key central government stakeholders through a technical task force. Links will be established with the available statistical data resulting from the DHS and EICV4 where applicable. Key informant interviews will be conducted with stakeholders in the districts involved in education management and planning, particularly those working on girls’ education district plans.
  • Training of Research Team and data collection
The research team will be trained on how to use   the research tools for three days. This will be immediately followed up by two days research pre-testing in Kigali. The pre-testing will help them to correct any identified challenges. All in all, the training will be for 5 working days, followed by the 10 days field data collection exercise.
The lead consultant is requested to clearly allocate tasks between the team members who should possess, individually and as a Team, thequalifications below:
  • Experience in carrying out KAP studies
  • Knowledge of Gender Analysis
  • Thorough knowledge and understanding of the critical development issues related to learning and gender
  • Good command of English and Kinyarwanda
Data analysis
The data analysis process will be qualitative. Once all of the FGDs are transcribed and translated to English, qualitative data analysis software will be used to code and analyze the English transcripts. In parallel, the responses from the reflective surveys completed by enumerators will be analyzed in real time. It is critical to note that data and information gathered will be quality assured so as to come up with a valid and reliable report. The quality assurance process will involve conducting validation/review meetings with MINEDUC, the youth reference group and other key stakeholders including UNICEF and Gender Monitoring Office (GMO).
  1. Study deliverables
    1. Intended users of the study report:
The primary users of the report will be Plan International Rwanda staff especially the programme department (advocacy and campaigns) as well as resource mobilization department (fundraising tool) work, for example DRM or strategy.
  1. Intended audiences of the report:
The key audience of the report will be Government institutions like MINEDUC; MIGEPROF and GMO; UN agencies such as UNICEF and other stakeholders involved in the areas of gender and learning
  1. The report format or other communication materials to be delivered
The   Consultant shall submit the following reports:
  • An inception reportupon selection and signing of the contractual agreement: the inception report will include a detailed work plan and specification of the instruments and tools to be used for the study, including the sampling framework. This will be submitted 10 working days (2weeks) after signing of the consultancy agreement.  The inception report shall be presented to the core committee/team at Country Office (CO) and approved by the Programme Support Manager (PSM) of Plan International Rwanda.
  • Draft report and feedback upon collection, analysis and interpretation of collected data and information. This will be submitted not more than 35 working days after signing of the consultancy agreement. The draft final report will be submitted to Plan Rwanda relevant staff and key stakeholders for feedback. The consultant shall the present the draft report to Plan staff and partners in a validation workshop. Relevant comments and suggestions generated during this workshop will be incorporated into the final version of the report.
  • A comprehensive final report of maximum 50 pages (hard copy & electronic copy in English) upon review, validation and acceptance by Plan Rwanda international and key stakeholders. The final report shall be submitted not later than 10working days after the validation workshop.
Below is the suggested format for the report:
  • Table of Content
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction-Background and objectives
  • Methodology and limitations
  • , Analysis and Interpretation
  • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Annexes-not limited to:
  • Study TOR
  • List of people consulted and their identifications (including age and sex)
  • List of documents consulted
  • Raw data
6.    Timeline
The total time allocated for the consultancy is 3 months: 2 weeks inception phase, 1 month for field work, 1month draft report and validation, 2 weeks for final reporting. The inception report should include more detailed study questions to be addressed during the field visit. The final report integrates all the feedbacks provided by key stakeholders during the validation workshop.
The table below presents the key milestones:
Tasks
Estimated number of days
Inception meeting and briefing with Plan Rwanda and partner relevant staff 
1 day
Literature (desk) review and inception report
10 working days
Development and translation of the research tools into local language(as may be required)
5 working days
Recruitment and Training of enumerators
5 working days
Supervision of quality data collection
10working days
Data cleaning, coding, Interpretation and analysis
20 working days
Report writingand submission of the first draft
10 working days
Integrate feedbackfrom Plan International Rwanda and Partner relevant staff
4 working days
Conduct validation workshop with UNICEF, MINEDUC and other stakeholders
1 day
Submission of the final report including feedback remarks from the workshop
3 day
  1. Ethics and Child Protection
The Consultant must be able to demonstrate up to date knowledge of research ethics relating to human subjects and a commitment to abide by the highest ethical standards. Ethics approval will be sought by Plan International’s Research and Knowledge Management Team and will be conducted in compliance with Plan International’s Child Protection Policy and adhere to Plan International Research Policy and Standards. The research will have a 50% representation of boys and girls, men and women and endeavour to include girls and boys, women and men with disabilities. During Focus Group Discussions, as may necessitate, female enumerators will engage with female respondents and male enumerators with male respondents to be able to get sensitive information that would otherwise not be gotten.
  1. Selection criteria for the Individual consultant
Interested bidders are required to clearly indicate the person who will be leading this KAP Study and also detail the specific tasks of the other members who will work with him/her.

Therefore, the lead constant or individual consultant will have the following key competencies:

  • A Master’s degree in Education, Social Sciences, Economics, gender, Sociology, or other related field from a recognized university
  • Thematic expertise in at least one of the following: Gender, Education, rights and equality,child poverty, social policy, violence, SRHR, economic security, financial education at least 3 years
  • Experience in designing and carrying out program baselines and evaluations.
  • Experience in qualitative methods and analysis and participatory research.
  • Proven experience in Education with special focus on gender in education
  • Superior data tabulation and analysis skills (using various ways)
  • Excellent skill in report writing and data interpretation
  • Familiarity with children’s and adolescent girls’ education issues
  • Prior experience in working with Plan Rwanda is an added value
9.    How to apply:
Interested Consultants are expected to submit a detailed proposal with the following component.
Note: Consultancy firms will not be considered for this call for applications. Only individual consultants with required qualifications and experience.
a)    Technical proposal to include:

  • A one page Consultant’s understanding of the TOR
  • Two pages of the proposed methodology, activities and expected outputs
  • A detailed activities schedule/work plan with the study timeframe referring to the above table under section 6 (including a Gantt Chart)
  • A profile of the consultant including the full names, physical addresses, telephone numbers; date of registration if possible, registration number, copy of registration certificate and VAT certificate; names of directors
  • Copy of CVs of the consultant.
  • Two samples of similar study carried out by the Consultant
  • At least two proofs of completion of similar works in the past.
b)    Financial proposal detailing:
  • Itemized consultant’s fees
  • Itemized field data collection expenses
  • Itemized administration expenses
  • Validity period of quotation
  • Expected payment plan and method
  • Tax status of the Consultant
  1. Deadline for submission of applications (proposals)
The deadline for application is 25thOctober 2016 by 4:00pm. Applications may only be submitted by hand at Plan International Rwanda Offices, Plot Number 821 Kagugu, P.O.BOX 6211 Kagugu and Telephone 0788305392. 
10.    Management of the study(Roles and Responsibilities):
10.1    Plan Rwanda International
The Education ProgrammeManager from Plan International Rwanda will oversee the study for timely and quality support to the lead Consultant. The Head of Program Quality Assurance will also provide technical support to the team. 
A Plan International staff from the Sweden Office will provide remote support and quality assurance while the Research Advisor at Plan headquarters will support in the selection, adaptation and guidance on relevant tools.
10.2    The Lead Consultant
The Lead Consultant will refine study guiding questions related to the study objectives as well as the methodology according to Plan International research standards.  S/He will conduct FGDs and KII (including note taking and observations) according to baseline guidelines, analyze and write reports of FGDs and produce a summary qualitative country report triangulating the data obtained.
Furthermore, he/she will participate in the recruitment and the training of a suitable number of enumerators to collect and enter both the data. S/He will be responsible for ensuring the quality and timely delivery of all outputs, and for ensuring Plan Rwanda’s Child Protection policy is adhered to at all times by all sub-contracted parties.  The Consultant will be responsible for managing the enumerators and ensuring their compliance with all the guidance and appropriate procedures for data gathering, entering, and obtaining consent and child protection standards.

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